Il vecchio Archivio di Stoccolma

AIX Architekten, Svezia

         


Riuscire a riutilizzare un edificio di 120 anni, costruito all’epoca per adattarsi appieno all’attività a cui era stato destinato e che negli ultimi 15 anni è rimasto abbandonato è stata per i progettisti AIX Architekten di Stoccolma una affascinante sfida.
L’edificio, rimasto inalterato nel tempo, è unico per la funzionalità della sua iniziale destinazione d’uso come Archivio Nazionale. È stato inaugurato nel 1891, e nella sua progettazione si è privilegiato l’utilizzo di nuovi materiali e di nuove tecnologie per l’epoca, come travi in ferro e il calcestruzzo che hanno assicurato una protezione antincendio; data la funzione di contenitori di documenti cartacei il pericolo principale derivava proprio da possibili incendi.
Occorre sottolineare che stiamo parlando di un edificio rivoluzionario per l’epoca: gli interni arredati in maniera spartana e funzionale con solai leggeri, presentano impianti di riscaldamento e ascensori all’avanguardia per quel periodo; inoltre furono progettato un ingegnoso sistema di circolazione d’acqua con dei radiatori a colonna per portare il calore nelle stanze e montacarichi azionati manualmente per i libri e ascensori elettrici.
Tutti gli impianti erano a vista. Da allora l’edificio non ha subito modifiche in quanto nel 1930 si era iniziato a pianificare lo spostamento dell’Archivio Nazionale in un altro edificio. Spostamento effettivamente iniziato non prima del 1968. Il trasferimento è stato ultimato solo nel 1995.

                      

 

Dopo anni di ricerche storiche nel 2008 si è decisa la riutilizzazione dell’edificio come contenitore di diverse attività culturali. Per fare questo,  seppur con l’obbiettivo di realizzare interventi contenuti senza grossi stravolgimenti morfologici, è stato impossibile riutilizzare l’ingresso originario per motivi dovuti al rumore del traffico e a causa del dislivello con l’attuale quota di strada. Lo stesso è quindi stato trasferito dalla parte del cortile, garantendo così un ingresso più silenzioso ed accogliente. Il nuovo ingresso all’edificio è indicato e messo in risalto da un porticato vetrato.
Le facciate sono state ripulite e restaurate. I mattoni e la malta, conservati abbastanza bene nel corso degli anni,  hanno richiesto solo piccole riparazioni.
La fascia del basamento intonacata che si affaccia sul cortile era invece in cattive condizioni ed è stato quindi necessario ripristinarla come nell’aspetto originale.
I telai delle finestre, in ghisa e in pessimo stato di conservazione, sono stati smontati, mandati presso una fonderia per la sabbiatura e in seguito rimontati, i vetri sono stati sostituiti, e i telai riverniciati nel colore originario.



La struttura in ferro, a vista era una delle caratteristiche di maggior valore dell’edificio, ma al contempo l’elemento di maggiore pericolo poiché, in caso di incendio, questa avrebbe potuto deformarsi causando il crollo dell’intero edificio. Dipingendo tale struttura con una vernice intumescente e installando dei dispositivi a pioggia antincendio in tutto l’edificio si sono potute mantenere a vista sia le colonne in ghisa che le travi. La vernice originaria della struttura portante è stata quindi sabbiata per essere poi tinteggiata con il prodotto ignifugo ed infine riportata al suo colore originario con l’utilizzo di colori in lino.
Per quanto riguarda l’accessibilità dell’edificio l’ascensore originario, di piccole dimensioni, non in grado di raggiungere tutti i piani dell’edificio, è stato sostituito da due ascensori.
Anche i pavimenti sono stati ritenuti di valore in quanto molte zone pubbliche sono ricche di pavimenti alla veneziana. In particolare i gradini della scala principale sono alla veneziana e poggiano su traverse in ferro molto decorate.
Negli archivi è presente un pavimento a mosaico in granulato di marmo rosso e grigio, disposto a semplice diagonale. Per i nuovi pavimenti nei bagni e negli ascensori abbiamo scelto il klinker di due colori ispirandoci ai pavimenti in graniglia.
L’intero attico è stato adibito agli impianti tecnici e di ventilazione. Alcune vecchie nicchie, nascoste dietro le mura sono state utilizzate come vani per monta carichi per i libri e per i normali ascensori. Inoltre, la necessità di ulteriori condotti verticali è stata risolta con delle asole sui travetti alle estremità nord e sud dell’edificio. Visti i soffitti bassi, ai vari piani non sono presenti canali di ventilazione orizzontali ma solamente canali di ventilazione e aspirazione verticali posti ai lati delle stanze più grandi.


Intelligentemente gli ambienti che avevano bisogno dei maggiori cambiamenti, come per esempio le cucine del bar e del ristorante, il cinema e i laboratori, sono stati sistemati nelle zone che già in precedenza avevano subito delle modifiche e per le quali non era necessario quindi mantenere lo stesso grado di conservazione storico-culturale degli altri ambienti. I bagni sono stati costruiti intorno al vano delle tubazioni, un intervento di rilievo ma comunque limitato per ogni piano.
Concludendo, il progetto di restauro e riutilizzo del vecchio archivio nazionale di Stoccolma si configura come un esperienza di particolare interesse volta alla conservazione di un edificio della fine dell’Ottocento e alla moderna fruibilità dello stesso, raggiunta attraverso soluzioni di minimo impatto che ne hanno garantito gli aspetti di sicurezza, soddisfacendo le esigenze connesse alla nuova destinazione d’uso.



SCHEDA DI PROGETTO

       
Programma, progettazione e costruzione
2008-2011


Architetti
AIX Arkitekter AB, Margareta Källström


Responsabile del patrimonio storico-architettonico
AIX Arkitekter AB, Johan Rittsél


Collaboratori
Impresa esecutrice: WSP Byggprojektering, Anders Vestlund
Consulenza impianti idraulici: WSP VVS-teknik, Jan Nordstörm
Consulenza impianti elettrici: ACNL Elteknik AB, Per Östfeldt
Dispositivi a pioggia antiincendio: Brandskyddslaget, Conny Becker
Consulenza per gli impianti antiincendio: Brandkonsulten AB, Kjell Fallqvist
Consulenza acustica: Audio Data Lab AB, Ingemar Ohlsson
Urbanista: Funkia AB, Jimmy Norrman
Architettura di interni: Ahlgren Edblom Arkitekter AB, Karin Ahlgren
Consulenza dell´illuminazione: Inwhite


Area complessiva
5200 mq


Superficie utilizzabile
7340 mq


Postato nella categoria: Restauro Recupero e Conservazione.

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